The time was 287–212 B.C.
It was at this time that the scientist Archimedes discovered his famous Principle. But this principle was discovered not through any long experiment or research. It was discovered centering on an unexpected event.
Greece had a small kingdom called Syracuse. Hiero was the king there. He was very capricious and he was suspicious of all the relatives, ministers, and generals around him.
He disliked the crown he wore. So he decided to make a new beautiful crown. So he called the best goldsmith in the country.
King Hiero told the old goldsmith that he had to make a beautiful crown. The crown will be gold. The crown should be so beautiful that all the kings of the world should appreciate it. And the work must be done within seven days. The goldsmith told the king that he would do his best to keep his value.
Seven days later the old goldsmith made a very beautiful crown and brought it to the king. The chairpersons, ministers, and other dignitaries were impressed by the crown. The king was also very happy to see the workmanship of the crown. So he gave the goldsmith various gifts and the money he deserved.
But after a while, a suspicion suddenly appeared in the king’s mind. He thought, “Didn’t the goldsmith add alloy to this crown?”
Suspicious, he immediately called the minister. And said to examine this crown properly. Is it not mixed with alloy? did it make of pure gold?
The Minister consulted various scholars of the country. But no one could say a good way. Even then, the method of verifying the alloy from gold was not invented.
Then Archimedes, the most famous scholar and scientist of the country, was called.
The scientist Archimedes was astonished to hear all the words of the king. He also did not know the way to recognize pure gold. Yet he did not say no directly to the king. He said he would try his best. The king gave him a month. And if Archimedes can’t find a way within a month, he’ll have to die.
So Archimedes was in great trouble. He wondered how pure gold could be recognized. His anxiety began to grow. He forgot to take a bath and eat. He stopped associating with people. Day and night he began to think about how the matter could be resolved.
Archimedes used to bathe in a large basin. One day after that incident, while bathing in the basin, he was thinking about the king’s crown. Suddenly Archimedes’ eyes fell on the water spot of the basin.
He saw that where the water stain was before the bath, the stain had come up a lot.
Even his own body looked quite light. He thought to himself that if he immersed an object in water, he would remove some water. The density of the object can be found by comparing the weight of this removed water with the weight of the object. And in this way, he will find a way to find out if there is alloy in the gold crown.
Archimedes, overjoyed at this, ran to the king, shouting Eureka Eureka.
Archimedes asked the king to give him the gold crown, a jug of water, and some pure gold.
This time Archimedes weighed the gold crown. He then dipped it in water and weighed its removed water. And compared the two weights to find out the density of the crown.
Then, similarly, he weighed the pure gold, dipped it in water, and weighed its removed water. The density of gold came out.
In this way, he showed the difference between the concentration of pure gold and the concentration of gold in the crown and proved that the gold crown was mixed with alloy.
“The buoyant or lifting force of an object submerged in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid it has displaced.”
Archimedes possessed unique talent. You can buy the books below to know more about it.